This question is concerned with the marking of evidentiality related to the speaker's indirect, non-sensory evidence for some event or action. Grammatical marking of evidentials involves the use of grammaticalized markers such as affixes or other morphology, evidential particles, or evidential auxiliary verbs to convey the evidential meaning, in contrast to constructions that create this meaning through the use of adverbs (e.g. John reportedly ate the cake) or lexical verbs in multi-clause constructions (e.g. They say that John ate the cake). Indirect evidentiality usually involves inference from physical evidence or second-hand knowledge such as hearsay. This question should be coded 1 if there is a single category of indirect evidentiality or any number of inferential or reportative evidential categories that are marked grammatically.
Eastern Pomo (ISO 639-3: peb, Glottolog: east2545)
"·le, the hearsay evidential suffix, indicates that the speaker’s information comes not from direct observation or experience, but rather from someone else’s recounting of the events described. The hearsay evidential is generally not translated, but occasionally, for greater clarity, I have translated it with the phrase ‘they say’. The hearsay evidential suffix always co-occurs with the hearsay evidential particle xa which may be preposed to the verb suffixed with -·le or which may occur as a separate word at the beginning of a clause of which the verb suffixed with -·le is the head" (McLendon 1975: 99; formatting adapted).
ša·qá·xdàyawal xa šó·llà·yówal wádu·kè-·le Quail.Young.lady HSY eastwards.under.the.sun went-HSY ‘Quail-Young lady went eastward under the sun (I heard).’ (McLendon 1975: 100)
Eastern Pomo is coded as 1 for this feature.
Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2004. Evidentiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chafe, William & Johanna Nichols (eds). 1986. Evidentiality: The linguistic encoding of epistemology. New York: Ablex Publishing.
McLendon, Sally. 1975. A grammar of Eastern Pomo. (University of California Publications in Linguistics, 74.) Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
You may combine this variable with a different variable by selecting on in the list below and clicking "Submit".